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Blog author, Solai Buchanan is an experienced Registered Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator with an MS from Columbia Teachers College. She specializes in treating heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, polycystic ovarian syndrome,and other chronic diseases. She is a provider at a full-service cardiology practice accepting most insurance and staffed with a primary care MD, pediatrician, and cardiologist. Call: 718.894.7907. NYCC is lead by Interventional Cardiologist Sanjeev Palta, MD, FSCAI, FACC. He trained at Cornell-Columbia Presbyterian Hospital and the State University Hospital of Brooklyn. He currently is an Attending Cardiologist at New York Methodist Hospital and Maimonides Medical Center. He is also an Assistant Clinical Professor in the Department of Medicine at Mount Sinai Medical Center. Having performed over 2000 invasive cardiac procedures Dr. Palta’s patients know they are in trusted hands.

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

RIBOFLAVIN SUPPLEMENTATION HELPS REDUCE MIGRAINES

A recent review of existing experimental studies found that daily supplementation with riboflavin can significantly reduce migraine frequency.    Migraine headaches are a common but debilitating neurological disorder.  Approximately 12% of Americans suffer from migraines and it is estimated the condition costs our healthcare system over 78 billion dollars annually. Migraine symptoms are typically characterized by intense pulsing or throbbing pain in one area of the head and are often accompanied by visual disturbances, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sensitivity to light and sound, and/or tingling in the extremities and face. 

The pathophysiology of migraine headaches is complex and involves many diverse dysfunctional areas in the brain. One of the major genetic disorders that has been linked to migraine headaches is dysfunctional mitochondria (the powerhouses of our cells).  Riboflavin, also known as B2, catalyzes the activity of flavoenzymes in mitochondria and it is via this mechanism that riboflavin is believed to aid in better functioning of neural cell metabolism and migraine relief.  Previous research suggests a high percentage of migraine sufferers have at least mild deficiencies in riboflavin.

What to do:  Riboflavin supplementation will not help all sufferers of this diverse condition but it does appear remarkably effective for some and, unlike most migraine medications, it has the benefits of being very safe and inexpensive.  So, if you suffer from migraines consider supplementing with 300-400mg of riboflavin daily for 2-3 months.  Foods that are especially rich in riboflavin include eggs, meat, and dairy. In the U.S. flour is also fortified with riboflavin.

Adapted from article available at:
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Riboflavin-HealthProfessional/

Source:

Thompson DF, Saluja HS. Prophylaxis of migraine headaches with riboflavin: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Theraputics 2017;00:1–10.  Published online ahead of print May 8, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.12548

Thursday, April 13, 2017

OLDER ADULTS' BONES BENEFIT FROM CALCIUM RICH DIET WHEN SUPPLEMENTING WITH VITAMIN D

A recent analysis of a prospective cohort study including over 600 older adults found that a diet rich in calcium was only associated with better bone health outcomes when participants were also supplementing with vitamin D.  Dietary intake of calcium rich foods did not appear to support bone health among individuals who did not supplement with vitamin D.  Study participants were drawn from those enrolled in the long-running Framingham Study, which began in 1948 and has followed the health and habits of a cohort Framingham, Massachusetts residents over time.

Participants averaged 75 years age.  Their patterns of food intake were assessed with detailed food frequency questionnaires and their bone density assessed with bone scans. The analysis found that absolute spinal bone mineral density levels as well as the change in hip bone mineral density over four years was significantly better among those who both consumed diets rich in calcium and who supplemented with vitamin D.  In contrast, higher dietary calcium intake was not protective among those who were not supplementing in vitamin D.  These results are consistent with the fact that vitamin D stimulates calcium absorption, which aids in bone building and prevention of bone loss. 

Bone health problems are a widespread health concern.  An estimated 44 million Americans have low bone density and 10 million Americans have more severe osteoporosis, a disease marked by low bone mass and progressive deterioration of bone tissue. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures, loss of physical function, decreased quality of life, and even death. 

What to do:  These findings underscore that the benefits of calcium rich diet to older person’s bones may be dependent on vitamin D intake.  As we age, all individuals lose bone mass but those who lose mass more quickly as well as those who did not accumulate adequate bone mass in adolescence are at risk for osteoporosis.  While the efficacy of calcium supplements remains debated there is generally consensus that individuals' bone health benefits from diets rich in calcium.  An estimated 80% of Americans’ diets are insufficient in calcium.  Some of the foods richest in calcium include dairy such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, fish with bones such canned salmon and sardines, and dark leafy vegetable such as Chinese cabbage, kale, and broccoli.  Our bodies make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to the sun but persons who are older, obese, have darker skin, and/or get little sun exposure are at high risk for low vitamin D levels.  If your bloodwork indicates you are low in vitamin D, supplementation as well as a calcium rich diet may be integral to maintaining bone health into old age.   

Source:
Sahni S, Mangano KM, et al.  Dairy intake is protective against bone loss in older vitamin D supplement users: The Framingham Study. Journal of Nutrition.  First published online March 1, 2017. DOI:10.3945/jn.116.240390

Adapted from articles available at:

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

EATING HOME-COOKED MEALS and Keeping the TV off during meals both LINKED TO HEALTHIER WEIGHT

A recent study of more than 12,000 low-income Ohio residents found eating food cooked at home, rather than out, and without the television on, was tied to lower rates of obesity.

To determine how meal practices affect obesity risk, the study team analyzed data from the 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey on for 12,842 adults.  The participants answered questions about how often they ate meals at home and how often they watched TV while eating and how many of their meals were home-cooked.  The researchers used self-reported height and weight data to calculate each participant’s body mass index (BMI), a ratio of weight to height.  Approximately one-third of participants were obese.

They found that overall about a third of adults watched TV during most or all meals, while another 36% did not watch any TV or videos during meals. For 62% of adults, all of the meals they ate were cooked at home.  Adults who cooked all of their meals at home were 26% less likely to be obese, compared with those who ate some or no home-cooked meals.  And, individuals who never watched TV during meals had 37%  lower odds of being obese than those who always or usually watched TV or videos during meals.

These findings are consistent with previous research that has found adults and children tend to eat more food, eat more quickly, and feel less satiated when they eat while watching TV.  Trials have found focusing on the food and the experience of eating can help to slow down the rate of consumption, reduce the total calories consumed, and increase perceived fullness and satisfaction with the meal.  There is also strong evidence that meals purchased outside the home are on average higher in total calories, sodium, and unhealthy fat than the average home cooked meal. One recent study that included many cities across the U.S. found that average restaurant/takeout entrĂ©e was over 1200 calories and that there was little difference in the nutritional breakdown of meals from chains and non-chains. 

What to do: Prepare food at home when possible.  Menu planning, weekend prepping, batch cooking, utilizing devices such as rice cookers and slow cookers and drawing on healthy convenience items such as frozen vegetables, pre-washed greens, and unsalted canned beans and fish can help to minimize the time needed to prepare meals.  And, regardless of whether you are eating a meal prepared at a restaurant or at home, turning off the TV and avoiding other device screens while eating can help with portion control and meal satiety.  If it feels empty without visual media at the meal, try playing music, or using the meal time as an opportunity to catch up with family members.   

Source:
Tumin R & Anderson SE.  Television, Home-Cooked Meals, and Family Meal Frequency: Associations with Adult Obesity.  Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.  Published online February 24, 2017.  Available at DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2017.01.009

Adapted from article available at:
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-obesity-meals-tv-idUSKBN16928E

Tuesday, February 28, 2017

LIVE LONGER WITH 10 DAILY SERVINGS OF FRUITS AND VEGGIES

If you want to add years to your life, a new review of existing research indicates 10 daily servings of fruits and vegetables may be the best recipe you can follow.  Researchers pooled the results of 95 studies that included more than 2 million subjects to assess the relationship between dietary intake of fruits and vegetables and longevity.  They found that a plant-rich diet lowers rates of heart attack, stroke, cancer and early death. Researchers estimate that if everyone found a way to get 10 daily servings of produce, 7.8 million premature deaths could be avoided each year.

A serving of fruit or veggies is roughly defined as one small fruit, 1 cup of raw fruit or veggies, or ½ cup of cooked fruits or veggies.  In the recent study, researchers found getting 10 servings of produce daily was associated with a 24% reduction in heart disease, a 33% reduction in stroke, a 28% reduction in cardiovascular disease, a 13% reduction in cancer, and a 31% reduction in premature death risk.  If you are a long way off from 10 daily servings of produce, do not despair.  Even just 2.5 servings daily yields substantial health benefits.  Researchers found eating 2.5 servings of produce daily was associated with a 16% reduction in heart disease, an 18% reduction in stroke, a 13% reduction in cardiovascular disease, a 4% reduction in cancer, and a 15% reduction in premature death.   

Why are fruits and vegetables so beneficial to our health?  They contain a complex array of vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, antioxidants, and fiber that have diverse benefits to our health and the health of our gut bacteria.  They also can replace intake of foods known to be harmful to our health.   
Which produce offers the most benefit?  Researchers found apples, pears, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower), and green and yellow vegetables (such as green beans, spinach, carrots and peppers) emerged as some of the most beneficial to reducing risk of health problems.

Another recent research paper found that intake of antioxidant-rich produce is especially helpful to current and former smokers.  Smoking exposes the lungs and body to increased oxidation and DNA damage.  The 13-year study involved 44,000 Swedish men between the ages of 45 and 79. Nearly two-thirds had smoked at some point. Roughly one-quarter still smoked.  The men filled out food questionnaires and answered questions about smoking and other behaviors.  Analyzing the data, the study team determined that regardless of smoking history those who ate five or more servings of certain fruits and vegetables a day were 35% less likely to develop serious airway diseases (known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which includes emphysema) than those who consumed just two servings daily.  Among former smokers, each additional produce serving produced a 4% lower risk of COPD. In current smokers, each extra serving was linked to an 8% lower risk.  Researchers theorized that antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables may play a role in reducing tissue stress and inflammation that is central to the onset of COPD.  Intake of apples, pears, green leafy vegetables and peppers appeared to be most protective against COPD.

What to do:  For overall health and longevity, incorporate a variety of fruits and vegetables into your regular meals and snacks.  Aim for 10 servings a day.  This is not as hard as you might think.  Remember a “serving” is approximately 1 cup of raw or ½ cup of cooked produce, so, for example, your portion of salad might be 3 servings of veggies.   Start by trying to include a fruit and/or veggie in each meal or snack.  Frozen options are nutritious and easy to keep on hand and quickly add to your menu selections.  As for preventing COPD, your best bet is not to smoke or quit if you do, but, if you won’t quit, making your diet rich in produce can likely help to blunt some of the increased risk to your health.

Adapted from articles available at:
https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163748.html

Sources:
Varraso R, Shaheen SO.  Could a healthy diet attenuate COPD risk in smokers?  Thorax 2017. Published online ahead of print February 22, 2017 DOI:  10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-209608

Kaluza J, Larsson SC, Orsini N, et al.  Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of COPD: a prospective cohort study of men.  Thorax 2017. Published online ahead of print February 22, 2017.  DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207851

Dagfinn A, Giovannucci D, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality–a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. International  Journal of Epidemiology 2017. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyw319 

Thursday, January 26, 2017

YOGA MAY IMPROVE BLOOD PRESSURE

Yoga is a mind-body therapy based on movement, breathing, and mindfulness. Over the last few years, many small studies have found that practicing yoga is good for heart health as well as mental health.  A recent small study adds to findings that regularly practicing yoga can significantly improve blood pressure. 

The new study included 60 people who had pre-hypertension but were otherwise healthy.  Blood pressure is made up of two numbers. The top number, the systolic pressure measures the pressure in the arteries when blood is pumped from the heart.  The bottom number, the diastolic pressure, measures the pressure between heartbeats. Persons with pre-hypertension have a systolic blood pressure of 120-139 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and/or a diastolic reading of 80-89 mmHg.  Pre-hypertensives are at high risk for developing full-blown hypertension which is defined as having a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or greater.  Both pre-hypertension and hypertension increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and heart failure.  In the U.S. approximately 1 out of 3 adults have pre-hypertension and nearly 75 million have hypertension.

To investigate the impact of hatha yoga on blood pressure, researchers assigned half of their participants to practice hatha yoga for 1 hour daily while the other half did not take up yoga.  Both groups were advised on standard measures to lower blood pressure including increasing cardiovascular activity, reducing salt intake, and quitting smoking.  The yoga treatment group received yoga instruction for a month and then did the activity at home. The yoga practice included breathing control exercises,  physical poses that involved stretching and strengthening components, and meditation.

After three months, those in the yoga group had notable decreases in blood pressure, while those in the control group did not.  Participants in the yoga group had 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and night diastolic blood pressure decreases of about 4.5 mm Hg, and 24-hour average arterial pressure decreases of about 4.9 mm Hg.  These were clinically significant results as it is estimated that among pre-hypertensives, every 2 mm Hg decrease in diastolic blood pressure decreases the risk of coronary heart disease by 6% and the risk of stroke by 15%.

What to do:  Consider adding some yoga into your life.  Hatha yoga, the type of yoga in this study is a more gentle form of yoga with more emphasis on breathing and mindfulness.  It is appropriate for persons at all fitness levels.  If making it to a yoga studio is not practical for you, there are many yoga DVD’s and resources online for streaming yoga.  Also, cable television providers often offer exercise-on-demand or feature regular yoga programming.  Many area senior centers and recreational centers offer very affordable class options.  Also, studios often offer a “community class” midday at reduced rates.

Information adapted from articles available at:
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/PhysicalActivity/FitnessBasics/Yoga-and-Heart-Health_UCM_434966_Article.jsp#.WFmDT_krLIU

Source

Manchanda SC, Narang R, Reddy KS, Sachdeva U, Prabhakaran D, Dharmanand S, Rajani M, Bijlani R. Retardation of coronary atherosclerosis with yoga lifestyle intervention. J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Jul; 48(7):687–694.  Abstract available at:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11273502

Thursday, December 8, 2016

THE MORE MEN DRINK, THE HIGHER THEIR RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER

A new review of existing studies finds that drinking alcohol raises the risk of prostate cancer.  Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in American men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men, preceded only by lung cancer.

When pooling the data of 27 existing studies, researchers found that even having 1-2 drinks a day significantly increases risk of prostate cancer and that as men's alcohol consumption increases, their level of prostate cancer risk also increases.    

Some previous analyses of the relationship between prostate cancer and alcohol consumption were inconclusive.  The researchers of the current study believe this was due to what they call “abstainer bias", the common practice in studies of categorizing former (sometimes heavy) drinkers who quit in the same group as people who never drank alcohol.  This has the result of underestimating the role that alcohol plays in disease.   

Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for many types of cancer.  A causal relationship exists between alcohol consumption and cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colon-rectum, liver, and female breast; a significant relationship also exists between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, and cancers of the cervix, vulva, and vagina. Evidence of exactly how drinking increases the risk of prostate cancer has not been established but researchers believe it may be due to alcohol's genotoxic effects, its role in elevating estrogen levels, and the changes it causes to how the body processes folate.

What to do:  Studies indicate even low levels of alcohol consumption increase prostate and many other cancers so no level of consumption is safe with it comes to cancer.  While moderate alcohol consumption does appear to be mildly cardioprotective, the American Heart Association does not recommend alcohol intake because it increases the risk of "high blood pressure, obesity, stroke, accidents, suicide, and cancer".  It recommends that if you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. This means an average of one to two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women. A drink is defined as one 12 oz. beer, 4 oz. of wine, 1.5 oz. of 80-proof spirits, or 1 oz. of 100-proof spirits.  Additionally, to help prevent prostate cancer, consume a healthy diet that's lower in meat and total fat and rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables (especially berries, tomatoes, and cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli), beans and legumes, and omega-3 rich fish such as salmon.   

Adapted from articles available at:
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/872085
https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162033.html

Source:
Zhao J, Stockwell T, Roemer A, Chikritzhs T.  Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta–analysis.  BMC Cancer 2016 16:845.  Published online 15 November 2016.  DOI: 10.1186/s12885-016-2891-z

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

EXPOSURE TO ELECTRONICS BEFORE BED HINDERS SLEEP

The evidence on the importance of sleep to our long-term health and well-being has never been stronger.  Inadequate sleep, shift work schedules, and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia have all been found to be significant risk factors for chronic diseases including heart disease, diabetes, depression, and even dementia.  The Center for Disease Control estimates nearly one-third of Americans are habitually sleep-deprived and this percentage is expected to continue to increase.  Not only is the quantity of our sleep inadequate but the quality of our sleep is also trending down.  One of the growing threats to the quality of our sleep is likely lurking right beside your pillow as you sleep – your smartphone.  A growing body of research indicates using electronics such as smartphones, tablets, e-readers and other back-lit devices, especially before bed, makes it more difficult to fall asleep and decreases the quality of the sleep we do get. 

The results from a recent month-long study are illustrative of the negative impact these devices are exerting on our sleep.  In this study, 650 adults used an app that tracked their smartphone use as well as the duration and quality of their sleep.  Researchers found the more individuals used their phones, especially in the hours before bed, the less they slept and the poorer quality of their sleep.   

Why are these devices bad for our sleep?  Not only do they occupy us when we should be sleeping but they emit short wave-length blue light that suppresses our production of melatonin, the hormone that helps us fall asleep. 

What to do:  To prime your circadian rhythm and counter the effects of screens at night, it helps to expose yourself to lots of bright light during the day.  Then, at night, if you have problems falling or staying asleep, try to avoid looking at bright screens, particularly those held close to your eyes, beginning 2-3 hours before bed.  It is especially crucial to avoid screens during the hour leading up to sleep.  Red light has the least power to shift circadian rhythm and suppress melatonin.  If you must use devices close to bedtime, utilizing special glasses that filter out the blue/green wavelength or employing apps (such as “Twilight”) or built-in phone settings (such as iPhones’ “night shift” setting) that shift the display from blues to warmer tones at night may help to encourage your body’s natural sleep/wake cycle. 

Information adapted from articles available at:

Source:
Christensen MA, Bettencourt L, Kaye L et al.  Direct measurements of smartphone screen-time: relationships with demographics and sleep.  PLOS ONE, 2016;11(11): e0165331. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165331